Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal Complex Sentence Part 1 & Pembahasannya

Materi Complex Sentence Part 1

Complex sentence atau kalimat majemuk bertingkat merupakan jenis lain dari non-simple sentence. Kalimat majemuk bertingkat dihubungkan dengan subordinating conjunction atau konjungsi subordinatif. Satu hal penting nih,  tak seperti coordinating conjunction yang hanya bisa diletakan di tengah, subordinating conjunction bisa diletakan di dua tempat: di tengah dan di akhir kalimat.

Perhatikan skema berikut:

  1. Coordinating conjunction

  2. Subordinating conjunction

Jadi kesimpulannya, complex sentence terdiri dari dua klausa: bound clause (anak klausa) dan main/independent clause (klausa utama). Paham ya guys?

Types of complex sentences

Dalam Bahasa Inggris, complex sentence terdiri dari tiga jenis, apa saja kah itu?

  • Noun clause (klausa kata benda)
  • Adverbial clause (klausa adverbia)
  • Adjective clause (klausa kata sifat)

Di artikel ini, kita akan bahas tentang complex sentence tipe noun clause atau klausa kata benda, yang terdiri dari tiga bagian: that clause, w/h-clause, dan whether/if-clause. Perhatikan penjelasan di bawah ini!

Noun Clause

Jenis complex sentence yang pertama yaitu noun clause. Noun clause (klausa kata benda) merupakan sejenis anak klausa yang berfungsi sebagai noun modifier atau penjelas kata benda (subjek, komplemen, atau objek) dalam sebuah kalimat tunggal (simple sentence). Nah, agar lebih paham, mari kita lihat contoh perbandingan dua kalimat dibawah ini!

Contoh:

Simple sentence:

People in this room have known this

.    (S)                                           (P)   (O)

Complex sentence (noun clause)

  1. People in this room have known this

    .    S                                          P           O

  2. People in this room have known [that] the guest star is very beautiful

    .                                                            Subor            S                   P

    That the guest star is very beautiful  merupakan salah satu klausa kata benda (noun clause) perluasan dari objek this

Identifikasi:

Jadi simple sentence di atas berubah menjadi complex sentence karena adanya perluasan unsur kalimat.

Quick tips:

Rumus perluasan adalah mengubah noun phrase (subject/object/complement) menjadi clause.  

Dasar-dasar teori:

Secara teori (berdasarkan perluasan subjek, predikat-komplemen, dan objek), noun clause atau klausa kata benda dikategorikan menjadi tiga: That clause, W/H-clause, dan Whether clause. Nah, untuk lebih jelas, perhatikan penjelasan di bawah ini!

THAT-CLAUSE [BAHWA]

“that”adalah subordinating conjunction yang mengawali klausa terikat (dependent clause). Subordinator “that” bermakna “bahwa”

Berikut ini adalah contoh perluasan kata benda (subjek, objek, dan  pelengkap dengan that clause)

Contoh:

  1. Perluasan subject (as subject)

    Contoh:

    That information

    .               S

    Causes all students so pleased

    .     P             O       Complement

    [That] the class today will be cancelledCauses all students so pleased

    Meaning: Bahwa kelas hari ini akan dibatalkan membuat semua siswa girang

  2. Perluasan object (as object)

    Contoh

    Now, Davina is informing

    Adv        S              P

    That news

    .       O

    To all radio listeners

    Complement

    Now, Davina is informing[That] the radio broadcast is held for an hourTo all radio listeners

    Meaning: Sekarang, Davina sedang menginformasikan bahwa siaran radio dilakukan selama satu jam ke semua pendengar radio

  3. Perluasan komplemen (as complement)

    Contoh:

    What those boys were realizing is

    .                    S                        P

    About that matter

    Complement

    What those boys were realizing is[That] their rights to join the competition have been restricted

    Meaning: Apa yang anak-anak tersebut sedang sadari adalah bahwa hak-hak mereka untuk ikut kompetisi sudah dibatasi

    That-clause verbs

    Tabel di bawah ini menunjukan daftar kata kerja (that clause verbs). Kita pahami dengan baik ya, guys!

    Assume that

    Agree that

    Believe that

    Claim that

    Guess that

    Hear that

    Hope that

    Inform that

    Predict that

    Prove that

    Realize that

    Recognize that

    Recommend that

    Think that

    Wish that

    Contoh:

    • The scientists have proved that the top speed of cheetah reaches 300 km per hours

      (Para ilmuwan sudah membuktikan bahwa kecepatan puncak macan tutul mencapai 300 km per jam

    • The head of dormitory believed that the number of students who rent the rooms will increase significantly

      (Kepala asrama percaya bahwa jumlah mahasiswa yang akan menyewa kamar-kamar akan naik drastis)

    • Some civil servants always know that the rule of uniform use never changes

      (Beberapa pegawai negeri sipil tahu bahwa aturan penggunaan seragam tidak pernah berubah)

    • A number of footballers hope that the referees in Indonesia lead the matches fairly.

      (Sejumlah pesekbola berharap bahwa wasit-wasit di Indonesia memimpin pertandingan dengan adil)

W/H-WORD CLAUSE

Wh-word clause merupakan bentuk klausa kata benda (noun clause) yang terbentuk karena adanya perluasan unsur subjek, objek, atau komplemen dengan diwali dengan partikel tanya (what, when, why, where, how, dll) Sama seperti that clause, perluasan haruslah dalam skema perubahan kata/frase menjadi klausa (yang cirinya memiliki predikat be/verb). Agar tidak membingungkan antara Wh-word clause dan W/H-question, mari kita lihat dua kalimat di bawah ini!

  1. Why did Johan clarrify his misconception about salary to the manager?
  2. David want to know why Johan clarrified his misconception about salary to the manager?

Keterangan:

  1. Kalimat 1 adalah W/H -question
  2. Kalimat 2 adalah W/h-clause

Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:

  1. Rahayu hasn’t realized that problem

    .      [S]                 [P]           [O]

  2. Rahayu hasn’t realized why her money weren’t released from ATM

    .      [S]            [P]                            [O]

Dalam kalimat di atas, ada proses perluasan unsur objek “that” menjadi klausa berpredikat verb (weren’t released). Sama seperti kasus pada “that” clause,perluasan unsur-unsur kalimat dalam Wh-word clausemencakup perluasan subject, perluasan object, dan pelengkap (complement).

Contoh:

  1. This secret hasn’t been known by all members here

      .[S] [P-Verb]

    How Ali gets much profit easily hasn’t been known by all members here

    .                         [S]                                  [P-Verb]

    (Bagaimana Ali mendapatkan banyak keuntungan dengan mudah balum diketahui oleh semua anggota) 

  2. Yoga questioned his father’s words
    [S]         [P]                          [O]

    Yoga questioned why he deserves to be the owner of a TV station

    [S]         [P]                          [O]

    (Yoga mempertanyakan mengapa ia pantas menjadi pemilik sebuah stasiun TV swasta) 

  3. The king has told   us     this matter
    [S]                [P]  [O]     [Complement]

    The king has told us where the prince wandered three last years

    [S]             [P]     [O]                             [Complement]

    (Sang raja telah memberitahu kita ke mana sang pangeran mengembara tiga tahun terakhir ini)                             

WHETHER/IF CLAUSE

Whether atau If  bermakna “apakah” dan termasuk salah satu dari complex sentence tipe noun clause. Sama seperti kasus noun clause yang lain, pola perluasan whetehr/if mencakup subject, object, dan complement (pelengkap). Agar lebih jelas lagi, kita langsung ke penjelasannya! J

Pola

Whether/if + Bound clause Subject + Predicate

main clause

Subject + Predicate + Whether/if + Bound clause

main clause

Note:

  • Penggunaan or not setelah whether bersifat optional (boleh ada boleh tidak)
  • Dalam wacana, penggunaan whether lebih formal daripada
  1. Contoh perluasan subject (subjek)
    NoContoh perluasan ‘subject’
    1That [S]Is still questionable [P]
    Whether the comet will collide with our EarthIs still questionable

    Meaning: Apakah komet tersebut akan bertabrakan dengan Bumi kita masih dipertanyakan

  2. Contoh perluasan object (objek)
    NoContoh perluasan ‘object’
    2Some gynecologists still learn [S]                       [P]Thiscase [O]
    Some gynecologists still learnIf the baby will be born with defect or not

    Meaning: Sejumlah dokter kandungan masih mempelajari apakah bayi ini akan terlahir dengan cacat 

  3. Contoh perluasan complement (pelengkap)
    NoContoh perluasan ‘complement’
    3What we are discussing in the forum is [S] About that issue [O]
    What we are discussing in the forum isWhether the migration of Pelican birds is unstopable or not

    Meaning: Apa yang sedang kita diskusikan sekarang adalah apakah migrasi burung-burung pelikan tersebut bisa dihentikan atau tidak.

Contoh Soal Complex Sentence Part 1 & Pembahasannya

Isilah kalimat yang ber-gap dengan subordinating conjuntions tipe noun clause yang berada di box dengan tepat!

if                             that                        why

whether                   when                     that

where                      that                        how

that                          whether                 why

who                         why                       how much

  1. Diana and her husband never know __________their cat was dead five days ago.
  2. All television viewers are still confused_______ our program in television will be postponed or not.
  3. _______ the rules of wearing school uniform are still debatable makes the parents consfused.
  4. The prince has assumed ________ her father’s kingdom will be prosperous if the king acts wisely.
  5. Several officers and a secuity staff in this company did not know ______has broken the office front door and taken some electronic devices.
  6. Samantha asked Pamela _______ he did not participate in singing and dancing competition.
  7. Tiara just asked her father not working today ________ he wants to fetch her in the bus stop or not.
  8. The new and unexperienced taxi driver has not known _______ he has to drop the confusing tourists.
  9. Please tell the students ________they do the home assignment without many interactions in social media.
  10. ________Indonesia, nowadays, is safe to be visited has made Australian tourists very happy because they want to take holiday in Bali and Yogyakarta.
  11. The farmers did not know ________I found the cheap but effective fertilizer to fertilize the bare land.
  12. The kids asked their teacher _______water they must bring to make those soap-made handicrafts
  13. Our head office just realized _________his mistake is too fatal so that he have to sacrifice his personal effort to stabilize the situation.
  14. The president knew more ________ Malaysia and Thailand did not want to invest in Indonesia.
  15. Just tell your brother ________ he deserves to be Nadia’s prospective wife or not.

Jawaban

  1. Why
  2. Whether/if
  3. That
  4. That
  5. Who
  6. Why
  7. If/whether
  8. Where
  9. How
  10. That
  11. When
  12. How much
  13. That
  14. Why
  15. Whether
Sebelumnya Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal Teks Anekdot & Pembahasannya
Selanjutnya Rangkuman Materi Wilayah Penting Di Dunia

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