Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal News Item & Pembahasannya

Materi News Item

Kalian pernah baca surat kabar atau koran? Entah surat kabal lokal atau surat kabar berbahasa Inggris  yang disajikan secara online dan cetakan. Di indonesia, ada beberapa surat kabar yang berbahasa Inggris, yaitu Jakarta Post dan Indonesian Time. Setiap penyajuan berita di surat kabar harus  disusun dengan struktur yang ajeg dan terkonsep dengan baik. Penyajian atau standar baku sebuah berita di surat kabar (khusus yang berbahasa inggris) disebut news item text atau teks berita.

Definition (pengertian)

News item adalah jenis teks dalam bahasa Inggris yang menginformasikan pembaca tentang peristiwa-peristiwa penting (important/newsworthy events), teraktual (actual), dan terkini (recent).

Purpose (tujuan)

Tujuan (purpose) dari news item adalah untuk memberitahu pembaca tentang peristiwa terkini dan teraktual yang dianggap penting. (To inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important )

Generic Structure (struktur teks)

Untuk membedakan teks news item dengan teks yang lain dalam bahasa inggris, teks ini memiliki struktur khusus. Struktur teks news item adalah sebagai berikut:

  • Newsorthy event (peristiwa penting yang diberitakan): peristiwa yang dimaksud harus penting, terkini, dan teraktual. Newsworthy events terdapat di bagian awal paragraf.
  • Background of event (latar belakang peristiwa): Bagian ini mendeskripsikan latar belakang peristiwa yang mencakup waktu tejadinya peristiwa (when the event occured), tempat terjadinya peristiwa (where the event occured), dan orang-orang (the participants) yang terlibat di dalam peristiwa tersebut.
  • Source of information (sumber informasi): Bagian source of information menjelaskan dari mana sumber pemberitaan peristiwa ini, apakah dari saksi mata (witnesses) atau pendapat ahli (opinion of the experts).

Language Feature (Fitur kebahasaan)

Untuk membedakan teks news item dengan teks yang lain dalam bahasa inggris, teks ini memiliki fitur kebahasaan (language features) khusus. Language features dari teks news item adalah sebagai berikut: 

  1. Menggunakan simple past tense (tenses yang berbicara tentang masa lampau)

    Rumus dari simple past tense adalah sebagai berikut:

    PositiveSubjet + Predicate (Verb 2) + Object

    Subject + Predicate (Was/Were) + Complement (Adjective/Noun/Adverb)

    NegativeSubjet + Predicate (Did not + Verb 1) + Object

    Subject + Predicate (Was/Were + Not) + Complement

    InterrogativeDid + Subject + Verb 1 + Object?

    Was/Were + Subject + Complement?

    ModalitySubject + Could/Might/Had to/Would/Should + Verb 1
    Time signal
    • Yesterday
    • Last week
    • Three days ago
    • In 2019
    • When ………

    Contoh:

    • Mr Vladimir Putin visited Turk to talk about military coorporation.
    • Soeharto was the former President of Indonesia that had led Indonesia for 32 years.
    • The soldiers did not attack the enemy troops
    • The moon could evolve our Earth faster than before
    • The staff could return the paskage to the company.
  2. Fokus pada specific circumstance (kejadian khusus)

    Artinya yang dibicarakan dalam teks news item adalah kasus khusus yang teraktual. Isu-isu global yang sudah lama terjadi biasanya tidak diberitakan dalam news item.

  3. Menggunakan material process (proses yang menggunakan kata kerja yang merujuk pada kegiatan fisik atau ragawi).

    Misalkan:

    • The farmers dig the soil and found a burried temple.
    • In South Korea, the flower blossoms in the Summer
    • The Fishermen sailed and caught the fish illegally.
    • The airport police investigated a suspicious woman carrying a mysteruous bag
  4. Menggunakan passive voice (kalimat pasif).

    Tujuan orang berbicara dalam bentuk pasif sebenarnya untuk menekankan proses terjadinya sesuatu dalam kalimat tersebut daripada fokus ke subjek kalimat.

    Rumus passive voice adalah sebagai berikut:

    SubjectBe

    are/am/is/was/were

    be/been/being

    Verb 3by Object

    Misalkan:

    • Tomorrow, these documentary films will be televised by the director, James Cameron
    • The city was bombed bby The U.S. Air Force.
    • The hotel was investigated by CIA and FBI.
    • Two days ago, the new members of Karate club were being hazed (by several senior students) at noon 
  5. Menggunakan direct speech (kalimat langsung) dan reported speech (kalimat tidak langsung).

    Direct speech (kalimat langsung) dan reported atau reported speech (kalimat tidak langsung) adalah konsep berbahasa yang sering digunakan untuk beraneka ragam wacana. Misalkan, dalam teks berita (news item), dalam pemberitaan langsung (direct reporting), dalam naskah drama (drama script), wawancara (interview), atau dalam percakapan sehari-hari pun kita sering menggunakan ragam bahasa ini. Perhatikan perbedaan pemaparan langsung (direct speech) dan pemaparan tidak langsung (reported speech) di bawah ini!

    1. Pemaparan langsung (direct speech)

      Dalam hal ini, ujaran diucapkan langsung oleh pembicaranya dan didengar langsung oleh partner bicaranya (partner of speaking)

      Contoh:

      • My Tjahjo said, “The cabinet of Joko Widodo needs a reshuffle”
      • Revalina said, “Indonesia is going to hold MotoGP session in Mandalika next year.”
    2. Pemaparan tidak langsung (indirect speech)

      Dalam hal ini, ujaran atau perkataan dari Mr Tjahjo dan Revalina diucapkan ulang oleh orang lain dalam hal ini dituliskan ulang oleh wartawan.

      Contoh:

      • My Tjahjo said that The cabinet of Joko Widodo needed a reshuffle
      • Revalina said that Indonesia would hold MotoGP session in Mandalika the previous year.
  6. Menggunakan action verbs (kata kerja tindakan) yang semuanya dituliskan dalam bentuk past verb: Misalkan: closed, came, attack, observed, investigated, dll

    (Kecuali untuk event-event yang belum dilaksanakan, kita gunakan mode tense future tense dengan menambahkan will atau be going to sebelum verb 1). Misalkan:

    • Next year, the minister will open the ceremony of Sea Games
    • Two days ahead, Mr Pambudi is going to visit Kompas to clarify the problem.
    • Mr Anies Baswedan is going to sign the policy of rivers normalization in Jakarta two next days.
  7. Menggunakan time conjunctions (konjungsi waktu). Misalkan: after, before, when, while, dll

Perhatikan contoh dari news item text di bawah ini!

Text 1:

National scene: Five fishermen arrested in Singapore

Newsworthy events:

Singaporean powers have confined five fishermen from Bagan Siapiapi, Kepulauan Riau, in the offshore of Singapore, March 12, 2020.

Background of events:

“Five customary fishermen from Bagan Siapiapi were caught and kept in Tanjung Bandan, Singpore,” executive of the Kepri office of the Indonesian Traditional Fishermen Association (KNTI) Sirajudin Wachid said as cited by Antara.The captures were made as the anglers were returning home from a two-day trip.

Source:

Sirajudin said that Singaporean oceanic police captured the fisherman after they had conducted the routine patroll in the offshore of Singapore. The fishermen were recognized as Tata, Rukmana, Abdul Qadir, M. Muzid, and Mustafa. Sirajudin encouraged the administration to help discharge them.

Contoh Soal News Item & Pembahasannya

Isilah pertanyaan-pertanyaan di bawah ini dengan benar dan tepat!

  1. What are generic structure of the text?
  2. What language features can you find in the text above and write them?
  3. When were the fishermen from Indonesia caught by Singaporean powers?
  4. What words can be used to replace ‘arrested’?
  5. Can the structure of news item be used to repots the news verbally? Give your opinion?
  6. Can we use simple past in news item text? If we can’t, give the reliable reason!

Jawaban:

  1. Generic structures of the text are:
    • Newsworthy event (Peristiwa penting)
    • Background of event (Latar belakang peristiwa: tempat, waktu, dan pelaku)
    • Source (Sumber informasi)
  1. Language features in the text above:
    • Action verbs (Kata kerja tindakan): confine, capture, keep, encourage, help, dll
    • Direct speech and indirect speech (kalimat langsung dan kalimat tidak langsung): Sirajudin said that …
    • Passive voice (bentuk pasif): the five fishermen were captured, the capture were made
  1. They were captured when they were returning home from two-day trip.
  2. The word arrested (ditangkap) can be replaced with caught or captured
  3. Yes, it can. I think the reporter certainly has the same content of news to be reported. To convey the news well, he/she had better use the structure of news item. With using the news item structure, the news is more effective and efficient
  4. No, we can’t. As we know, the news should be recent, factual, and actual. Those things can be only represented with using present form (are/am/is, verb1/don’t/doesn’t)

Text 2:

                                          Town Contaminated

 

Newsworthy events:

Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.
Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.

Background of events:

The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.

Source:

A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

Pertanyaan

Isilah pertanyaan-pertanyaan berikut dengan benar dan  tepat!

  1. What is the purpose of the text above?
  2. What asepects do you find in the first paragraph?
  3. How many of participant are there in the text above? and who are they?
  4. What are the characteristics of the writer/journalist in writing the text above?
  5. Is there a relationship between the radioactive leak in Chernobyl and the explosion in the reactor of Victor-class submarine? Explain?
  6. Besides the danger of its effect, nuclear, in fact, is beneficial for human. What are the advantages of nuclear for humankind?

Jawaban:

  1. The purpose of the text above is to inform the newsworthy/important, recent, and actual events to the readers. (To inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important )
  2. In the first paragraph (newsworthy event), there are aspects: where and where the accidents happen and who are the participants involved in the events.
  3. There are two participant involved in the news item text:
    • Participant involving (para pelaku)
    • Witnesses/expert as source of information (ahli atau narasumber berita)
  1. She/he is knowledgeable (berpengathuan) and informative (informatif)
  2. I think the range time of the occurances was too long. In addition, the type of incidents was different. If the chernobyl incident was nuclear explosion while the Victor Class Submarine incident was radioactive leak that caused thermal
  3. The benefits/advantages nuclear for human (keuntungan nuklir untuk manusia) are:
    • It can be used for health, such as rontgen, x-ray, and laser/infrared for surgery (Digunakan untuk/di bidang kesehatan, seperti ronsen, sinar X, laser dan inframerah untuk pembedahan)
    • It can be used for navigation and transportation, such as SONAR and geography information system. (Digunakan untuk navigasi dan transportasi, seperti Sonar dan sistem informasi geografi)
Sebelumnya Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal Teks Rekaman Percobaan & Pembahasannya
Selanjutnya Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal Larutan Elektrolit & Non Elektrolit Berikut Pembahasan

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