Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal Simple Sentence & Pembahasannya

Materi Simple Sentence

Artikel ini membicarakan tentang simple sentence atau kalimat tunggal. Sebelum membahas detail tentang kalimat tunggal, kita akan jelaskan dulu tentang kalimat (sentence) secara umum. Satu hal penting, dengan memahami tata kalimat, kita bisa dengan mudah membuat teks adah bacaan. Sentence atau kalimat adalah unsur gramatikal yang menyusun sebuah wacana text (text discourse). Berikut ini adalah syarat-syarat sebuah kalimat (sentence):

  1. Sebuah kalimat (sentence) terdiri dari satu ide/gagasan atau lebih.
  2. Secara stuktur, sebuah kalimat (sentence) minimal terdiri dari satu klausa (Subject + Predicate)
  3. Antara satu kalimat dengan kalimat lainnya (sentences relations) bisa dihubungkan dengan kata hubung (conjunction).

Secara teori, ada dua aspek yang menyusun sebuah kalimat: frasa (phrase) dan klausa (clause). Sebuah klausa yang bisa berdiri sendiri bisa disebut kalimat (sentence), termasuk di dalamnya simple sentence atau kalimat tunggal atau bisa juga disebut klausa utama (main clause) sedangkan klausa yang tidak bisa berdiri sendiri disebut anak klausa (dependent/bound clause)

Perhatikan perbandingan dua klausa berikut!

  1. Main clause/sentence
    1. Justine swept the back floor yesterday
    2. I was too frightened with that movie
    3. Our God can save us in the worst situation
  2. Bound/dependent clause
    1. ______________because they collect the ancient coins
    2. After she had provocated her rival in the media, _____________
    3. ______________that I have been elected to be the vice director 

Keterangan:

  1. Ketiga klausa di bagian A disebut klausa utama atau kita bisa langsung sebut itu kalimat. Masing-masing dari ketiga kalimat mengandung satu gagasan utama dan bisa berdiri sendiri (independent) tanpa adanya kehadiran klausa lain. Tiga kalimat di bagian A bisa juga kita sebut simple sentence atau kalimat tunggal.
  2. Ketiga klausa di bagian B disebut anak klausa (dependent clause) atau klausa terikat (bound clause) karena keberadaannya membutuhkan kehadiran klausa utama (main clause).

Simple Sentence (Kalimat Tunggal)

Definisi

Kalimat tunggal (simple sentence) adalah kalimat yang terdiri dari minimal satu subjek (subject) dan satu predikat (predicate). Supaya lebih paham, perhatikan contoh berikut:

Contoh:

  1. Revalina endorses her friend’s beauty products.

    subject predicate   object

    (Revalina mengiklankan produk-produk kecantikan temannya)

  2. The orator was asked to leave the dais

    subject     predicate    complement

    (Si orator diminta untuk meninggalkan mimbar)

Jenis-jenis (types)

Kalimat tunggal atau simple sentence dibagi menjadi beberapa jenis: verbal, adjectival, nominal, prepositional/adverbial, numeral, dan pronoun.

 

No

Type of simple sentenceCharacteristics

Examples

1VerbalMenggunakan kata kerja (verb)

 

  • S+ Verb 1/ Verb 2
  • S + Has/have +Verb 3
  • S + To be + Verb (-ing)
  • S + Modal + Verb 1
  1. I have enrolled my son to the match
  2. She wore a swimsuit last week
  3. Judika’s voice sounds very melodious
  4. Indra and his brother can meet her father next week
2Nominal
  • Menggunakan frasa kata benda (noun phrase)
  • Diwali dengan determiner (the, a, an, that, his, dll)
  • Untuk bentuk negatif (negation), diawali dengan ‘not’
  1. David is a cardiologist
  2. Your mother is the receiver of my E-mail.
  3. Your mother was the general manager in her former company
  4. Whom I love so much is that woman
3Adjectival
  • Menggunakan kata sifat (adjective)
  • Diawali dengan adverb of degree (very, so, too, quite, more, most)
  • Untuk bentuk menyangkal (negation), diawli dengan ‘not’
  1. Sabrina is not arrogant
  2. The thing you told is very mysterious
  3. That sport was too difficult
  4. I am more handsome than you
4Adverbial/ prepositional
  • Menggunakan preposisi (from, at, in, on, with, without, by, dll)
  • Predikat berupa keterangan (place, time, compliment/ pelengkap)
  1. This bear will be in this cage
  2. The athletes were on the track
  3. Yohan’s uncle is from a small village in Jepara.
  4. Ed Sheeran is from England
5NumeralMenggunakan unsur bilangan (numbers)

 

  • Cardinal (one, two, three)
  • Ordinal (first, second, final)
  • Fraction (pecahan)
  1. The total of students joining the club are a half from the total amount
  2. My daughter is two
  3. Your turn is second
6Pronoun
  • Subject pronoun (I. She, he, they)
  • Object pronoun (him, her, them, us, you, dll)
  • Possesive pronoun (mine, yours, ours, her, dll)
  • Reflexive pronoun (myself, herself, itself, himself, yourself, themselves, dll)
  1. The target of our selling is you
  2. The Chinese dictionary on the desk is mine
  3. The figure whom Cassandra admires is herself.

Catatan: Dalam simple sentence, kita boleh menggunakan keterangan atau adverb. Sebagaimana kita ketahui, adverb bisa dikategorikan menjadi beberapa:

  1. Adverb of time (keterangan waktu):

    Contoh: yesterday, today, in 2019, tomorrow, right now, dll

  2. Adverb of place (keterangan tempat)

    Contoh: at home, in the room, beside me, in front of the building, from Mexico, dll.

  3. Adverb of tools (keterangan alat)

    Contoh: with a knife, with an axe, with a car, by car, on phone, dll

  4. Adverb of purpose (keterangan tujuan)

    Contoh:  For you, to get some money, to be happy (untuk/agar ………)

  5. Adverb of manner(keterangan cara)

    Contoh: quicky, fast, fluently, immedietely, hurriedly, dll

  6. Adverb of degree (keterangan tingkatan)

    Contoh: so, very, too, quite, more, most, as … as, enough, dll

Berikut ini adalah contoh-contoh simple sentences dengan unsur kalimat lengkap!

  1. Pola:[Adv.of purpose + Subject + Predicate (verb) + Object + Adv. of tool)
    To get the audience’s attention, the motivator illustrates his/her motivational experiences with some interesting stories.

    (Untuk mendapatkan perhatian penonton, motivator tersebut menggambarkan pengalaman motivasinya dengan beberapa cerita menarik)

  2. Pola: [Subject + Adv.of degree + Predicate (Adjective) + Adv.of tool]
    Farida’s face  is really enchanting with luxurious make up on it.

    (Wajahnya Farida sungguh memikat dengan balutan make up mewah di permukaannya)

  3. Pola: [Adv.of time + Subject + Predicate (verb) + Object + Adv.of Place]
    Two last years, the French architects built the sky-scraper towers in Manhattan

    (Dua tahun terakhir, arsitek Perancis membangun menara pencakar langit di kawasan Manhattan) 

  4. Pola:of time + Subject + Adv.of manner + Predicate (linking verb) + Complement (adjective) + adverb
    During the competition, our parents surely become so unpleased to our doing fault in each match

    (Selama kompetisi, orang tua kita tentunya menjadi tak senang dengan kita berbuat kesalahan di tiap-tiap pertandingan)

Contoh Soal Simple Sentence & Pembahasannya

Soal No.1

The following sentence is not categorized as verbal form in simple sentence …..

  1. Kayla is regarded as the most responsible person in his company
  2. The clowns can entertain the coming children with their dancing and showing magic tricks
  3. Finally, we broke the main door due to emergency situation
  4. William Mc Kinley is the former President of The United States of America
  5. The captain has commanded his troops to do sporadical attack to the enemy.
PEMBAHASAN :

Verbal sentence adalah kalimat yang menggunakan predikat kata kerja (verb) dengan pola sebagai berikut:

  • S+ Verb 1/ Verb 2
  • S + Has/have +Verb 3
  • S + To be + Verb (-ing)
  • S + Modal + Verb 1

Kalimat di opsi D menunjukan simple sentence berkategori nominal sentence atau berpredikatkan kata benda (noun phrase)

Jawaban D

Soal No.2

Look at the sentence below! 

Amanda is, now, being inside the pentagonal-shaped building to see the drama performance.

The sentence above is categorized as ……

  1. Verbal sentence
  2. Adjectival sentence
  3. Prepositional sentence
  4. Nominal sentence
  5. Numeral sentence
PEMBAHASAN :
Kalimat di atas termasuk kategori prepositional sentence karena terdapat preposisi atau kata depan inside (di dalam) di dalam kalimat Amanda is, now, being inside the pentagonal-shaped building to see the drama performance.

Jawaban C

Soal No.3

Which of the following sentence that has the pattern below!

Adverb, S + Predicate (Verbal) + Object + Complement

  1. To neutralize the situation, the police caught the provocator of chaos
  2. Yesterday, Amira bought her father an elegant dress
  3. Carefully, Mr Somad entered the dark cave alone
  4. Anton has had his house renovated by his workers
  5. Intan is very beautiful with her own gown
PEMBAHASAN :

Kalimat yang berpola Adverb, S + Predicate (Verbal) + Object + Complement

Ditunjukan kalimat di opsi B

Adverb

SubjectPredicate (Verbal)ObjectComplement
YesterdayAmiraBoughtHer father

An elegant dress

Pola untuk tiap-tiap opsi jawaban:

  • Opsi A: Adverb, Subject + Predicate + Object
  • Opsi C: Adverb, Subject + Predicate + Object + Adverb
  • Opsi D: Subject + Predicate + Object + Complement
  • Opsi E: Subject + Predicate (Adjectival)

Jawaban B

Soal No.4

Which of the following sentence is not categorized as simple sentence!

  1. When Anggun called me, I was typing the important document
  2. Since two hours ago, Amanda has been among the passangers of City Link Airliness
  3. To clean the floor from the dust, my assistant always use a vaccum cleaner
  4. The pedi cab was parked near my house three last days
  5. I can accomplish this project on time owing to the urgent necessary
PEMBAHASAN :
Ciri dari simple sentence adalah tidak ditemukannya conjunction atau kata hubung dala kalimat. Opsi A (dalam kalimat When Anggun called me, I was typing the important document) terdapat konjungsi when yang artinya “ketika’

Jawaban A

Sebelumnya Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal Stative And Dynamic Preposition & Pembahasannya
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