Rangkuman Materi Direct And Indirect Speech Bahasa Inggris UTBK-SBMPTN

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Direct speech (DS) merupakan kalimat yang langsung diucapkan oleh pembicara asli dan penulisannya menggunakan tanda petik. Sedangkan Indirect speech (IS) merupakan kalimat tidak langsung yang memberitakan ucapan pembicara asli dan penulisannya tidak menggunakan tanda petik lagi.

A. PERNYATAAN (STATEMENT)

    1. She says, “I read the magazine everyday.” (DS)
      She says (that) she reads the magazine everyday. (IS)
    2. She has said to me, “I will send you a letter.” (DS)
      She has said to me (that) she will send me a letter. (IS)
    3. Dewi said, “I go shopping almost everyday.” (DS)
      Dewi said (that) she went shopping almost everyday. (IS)
    4. Deni said, “I have painted my room today.” (DS)
      Deni said (that) he had painted his room that day.” (IS)
    5. Hadi said, “I painted my room yesterday.” (DS)
      Hadi said (that) he had painted his room the day before (IS)
    6. He said to me, “I will send you a letter tomorrow.” (DS)
      He said to me (that) he would send me a letter the following day (IS)
    7. Anton said, “Mira might come today.” (DS)
      Anton said (that) Mira might come that day.” (IS)
    8. My father said to me, “You should be at home to help your brother.” (DS)
      My father said to me (that) I should be at home to help my brother. (IS)

Pada induk kalimat present, anak kalimatnya tidak mengalami perubahan tenses. Perubahan hanya terjadi pada kata ganti (pronoun) dan kata keterangan (adverbial) saja. Contohnya pada pernyataan 1 dan 2. Sedangkan pada induk kalimat past, anak kalimatnya mengalami perubahan tenses, pronoun, dan adverbial. Contohnya pada pernyataan 3, 4, 5, dan 6.
Anak kalimat yang menggunakan kata-kata would, should, might, ought to, used to, must, dan had better tidak mengalami perubahan tenses pada kalimat tidak langsungnya meskipun induk kalimatnya past tense. Contohnya pada pernyataan 7 dan 8.

Perubahan Tenses
Direct Speech:

    1. Simple Present Tense
    2. Present Continuous Tense
    3. Present Perfect Tense
    4. Simple Past Tense
    5. Past Continuous Tense
    6. Present Future Tense

Indirect Speech:

      1. Simple Past Tense
      2. Past Continuous Tense
      3. Past Perfect Tense
      4. Past Perfect Tense
      5. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
      6. Past Future Tense

Perubahan Kata Keterangan
Direct Speech:

    1. today
    2. now
    3. tomorrow
    4. next …
    5. yesterday
    6. last …
    7. … ago
    8. here
    9. this
    10. these

Indirect Speech:

    1. that day
    2. then
    3. the following day/ the next day
    4. the … after/ the following …
    5. the day before
    6. the previous …
    7. … before/ the previous …
    8. there
    9. that
    10. those

B. PERTANYAAN (QUESTION)

    1. Tanpa Kata Tanya
      a. The leader asks me, “Are you e new member?”(DS)
      The leader asks me if/whether I am a new member. (IS)
      b. He asked her sister, “Have you sent my letter today?” (DS)
      He asked her sister if/whether he had sent her letter that day (IS)
      c. Zara asked me, “Could you tell me the latest news?” (DS)
      Zara asked me if/whether I could tell her the latest news. (IS)
    2. Dengan Kata Tanya
      a. The man asks me, “Where do you work?” (DS)
      The man asks me where I work. (IS)
      b. He asked Dony, Why did you tell your father about our plan yesterday?” (DS)
      He asked Dony why he had told his father about their plan the day before. (IS)
      c. My secretary asked me, “What should I buy now?”(DS)
      My secretary asked me what she should buy then. (IS)

Untuk anak kalimat tidak langsung (Indirect Speech) bentuk pertanyaan (question) selalu pernyataan (statement), susunan polanya sebagai berikut:
a. Tanpa kata tanya: if/whether (apakah) + S + P
b. Dengan kata tanya: Kata Tanya + S + P, tidak menggunakan tanda tanya (?) di akhir kalimat, kecuali jika induk kalimatnya berbentuk kalimat tanya (Does he ask me … ?).

Aturan pada Direct Speech dan Indirect Speech sama dengan aturan pada statement, yaitu:
a. Induk kalimat present tidak ada perubahan tenses.
b. Induk kalimat past ada perubahan tenses.
c. Anak kalimat menggunakan kata-kata would, should, might, ought to, used to, dan had better tidak ada perubahan tenses meskipun induk kalimatnya past tense.

C. PERINTAH DAN LARANGAN (COMMAND AND PROHIBITION)

    1. The teacher told the students, “Study hard!” (DS)
      The teacher told the students to study hard. (IS)
    2. The CEO said to his manager, “Don’t postpone our plan!” (DS)
      The CEO said to his manager not to postpone their plan. (IS)
    3. The moderator tells the audience, “Be silent, please!”(DS)
      The moderator tells the audience to be silent. (IS)
    4. The head master says to the lazy boy, “Don’t be late again!”(DS)
      The head master says to the lazy boy not to be late again. (IS)

Pada contoh 1 dan 2 anak kalimat bentuk Command and Prohibition tidak pernah punya subjek dan tidak ada perubahan tenses, meskipun induk kalimatnya berbentuk past tense.
Pada contoh 1 dan 3 untuk bentuk Command hanya menggunakan To + infinitive.
Pada contoh 2 dan 4 untuk bentuk Prohibition hanya menggunakan Not to + Infinitive.

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