Soal UTBK Bahasa Inggris Tahun 2014 Dan Pembahasannya

Soal UTBK Bahasa Inggris Tahun 2014 Dan Pembahasannya

Questions 1-3 are based on the following the text

Parents send their children to school with the best of intentions, believing  that formal education is what kids need to become productive, happy adults. Many parents to do have qualms about how well schools are performing, but the conventional wisdom is that these issues can be resolved with more money, better teachers, more challenging curricula, or more rigorous tests. But what if the real problem is school itself? The unfortunate fact is that one of our most cherished instituations is, by its very nature, failing our children and our society.

Children are required to be in school, where their freedom is greatly restricted, far more than most adults would tolerate in their workplaces.  In recent decades, we’ve been compelling them to spend even more time in this kind of setting, and there’s strong evidence that this is causing psychological damage to many of them. And as scientists have investigated how children  naturally learn, they’ve realized that kids do so most deeply and fully, and with greatest enthusiasm, in conditions that are almost opposite to those of school.

Compulsory education has been a fixture for our culture now for severalgenerations. President Obama and Secretary of education Arne Duncan are so enamored of it that they want even longer school days and years. Most people assume that the basic design of today’s schools emerged from scientific evidence about how children learn. But nothing could be further from the truth.

School as we know them today are a product of history, not of research. The blueprint for them was developed during the Protestant Reformation, when schools were created to teach children to read the bible, to believe Scripture without questioning it, and to obey authority figures without questioning them. When schools were taken to over by the state, made compulsory, and directed toward secular ends, the basic structure and methods of teaching remained unchanged. Subsequent attempts at reform have failed because they haven’t altered the basic blueprint. The top-down, teach-and-test method, in which learning is motivated by a system of rewards and punishments rather than by curiosity or by any real desire to know , is well designed for indoctrination and obidience training but not much else. It’s no wonder that many of the world’s greatest entrepreneurs and innovators either left school early (like Thomas Edison) or said they hated school and learned despite it, not because of it (like Albert Enstein).

(Adapted from: http://www.rd.com/advice/parenting/american -school-system-damaging-kids/#ixzz39fiE0qrJ)

Soal No.1
What is the topic of the text above?
  1. Parent’s expectation on reformation in American school system.
  2. Doubts on the effectiveness of America school systems.
  3. Restrictions on children’s freedom at the US school.
  4. Regulations for American children to stay longer at schools.
  5. Absence of a research –based school system in the USA.

PEMBAHASAN :
Apa topik dari teks di atas?
Pada paragraf 1, perhatikan kalimat:

  • Many parents to do have qualms about how well schools are performing (banyak orang tua yang memiliki keraguan tentang seberapa baik kinerja sekolah).
  • The unfortunate fact is that one of our most cherished instituations is, by its very nature, failing our children and our society (fakta yang sangat disayangkan adalah bahwa salah satu institusi kita yang paling berharga, pada dasarnya mengecewakan anak-anak dan masyarakat kita).

Dari dua kalimat di atas dapat diketahui bahwa topik pada teks tersebut adalah Doubts on the effectiveness of America school systems (keraguan terhadap efektivitas sistem sekolah Amerika).
Jawaban B

Soal No.2
What is the purpose of the text?
  1. To discuss if the American school system is truly effective to educate children.
  2. To remind American parents that the formal school is basically a product of culture.
  3. To tell the readers that formal school in the USA have been constatly developed for a long time.
  4. To review how compulsory education the USA has met parent’s expectation.
  5. To describe how American children learn at school and in real-life settings.

PEMBAHASAN :
Apa tujuan teks tersebut?
Pada paragraf 1, perhatikan kalimat: But what if the real problem is school itself? The unfortunate fact is that one of our most cherished instituations is, by its very nature, failing our children and our society. (tetapi bagaimana jika masalah sebenarnya adalah sekolah itu sendiri? fakta yang sangat disayangkan adalah bahwa salah satu institusi kita yang paling berharga, pada dasarnya mengecewakan anak-anak dan masyarakat kita).
dari kalimat di atas dapat diketahui apa tujuan teks tersebut yaitu to discuss if the American school system is truly effective to educate children. (untuk membahas apakah sistem sekolah Amerika benar-benar efektif untuk mendidik anak).
Jawaban A

Soal No.3
Which of the following is closet in meaning to the word “qualms” (paragraph 1)?
  1. Remarks
  2. Request
  3. Doubts
  4. Views
  5. Beliefs

PEMBAHASAN :
Perhatikan kalimat berikut: Many parents to do have qualms about how well schools are performing. Pada kalimat tersebut terdapat kata qualms yang memiliki arti cemas dan bersinonim dengan:

  1. Remarks: perkataan
  2. Request: meminta
  3. Doubts: keraguan
  4. Views: dilihat
  5. Beliefs: keyakinan

Jawaban C

Questions 4-9 are based on the following  text.

 

Ecotourism is defined as ‘purposeful travel that creates an understanding of cultural and natural history, while safe guarding the integrity of the ecosystem and producing economic benefits that encourage conservation’ . The definition recognized that ecotourismis an important educational tool. Real life exposure to a natural situation in the accompaniment of an experienced guide leads a greater increase, in knowledge than real life exposure without a guide, or exposure to a knowledge able guide in an artificial setting.

More than 50 years ago, Swiss psycologist Jean Piaget studied the development of human cognitive capability and its dynamic relationship with the physical world. He viewed cognitive development as an interaction between physical maturation of the brain and environmentally induced changes in learning. He observed that, as children grow, they proceed through a series of increasingly abstract thinking styles. Piaget demonstrated that a primary motivation for learningis resolution of cognitive conflict, which he described as ‘disequilibrium’.

Borrowing upon principles of cognitive psycology, my colleagues and I have developed an interpreted mode for presenting information about marine mammals and their ocean environment during whale-watch in Hawaii and Australia. The model has more recently been extended to include snorkeling excursions to coral reef areas near Maui, Hawaii.

Its application can be examined in the context of a typical 2.5 h commercial whale-watch trip aboard a Pacific Whale Foundation passanger vessel to observe humpback whales in Hawaii. Each whale-watch trip is a different venture, controlled by such variable factors as the number and type of passangers weather conditions, what the whales choose to do (or not to do, as the case may be), the type of vessel, and the experience of the captain. Nonetheless, it is possible to view the trip as a structured experince, and to guide participants through an education sequence that has very clear goals and objectives that can be monitored and evaluated over time.

(Adapted from Ocean & Coastal Management 20,1993, pp, 267-282)

Soal No.4
The purpose of the text is to …
  1. Describe the development of an interpretive model of ecotourism.
  2. Explain the influence of Piaget’s cognitive theory of learning on ecotourism
  3. Show that ecotourism can be interpreted contextually as excursions
  4. Discuss the relevance of a learning theory with ecotourism as education
  5. Define ecotourism from theories of learning and their application

PEMBAHASAN :
Tujuan teks tersebut adalah untuk …

Perhatikan kalimat-kalimat berikut ini:

  • Kalimat pada paragraf 1: Ecotourism is defined as ‘purposeful travel that creates an understanding of cultural and natural history, while safe guarding the integrity of the ecosystem and producing economic benefits that encourage conservation’. (ekowisata didefinisikan sebagai ‘perjalanan dengan tujuan yang menciptakan pemahaman tentang budaya dan sejarah alam, sambil menjaga keutuhan ekosistem dengan aman dan menghasilkan manfaat ekonomi yang mendorong konservasi)
  • Kalimat pada paragraf 3: Borrowing upon principles of cognitive psycology, my colleagues and I have developed an interpreted mode for presenting information about marine mammals and their ocean environment during whale-watch in Hawaii and Australia. (meminjam prinsip-prinsip psikologi kognitif, saya dan rekan-rekan saya telah mengembangkan mode interpretasi untuk menyajikan informasi tentang mamalia laut dan lingkungan laut mereka selama pengamatan paus di Hawaii dan Australia)
  • Kalimat pada paragraf 4: Its application can be examined in the context of a typical 2.5 h commercial whale-watch trip aboard a Pacific Whale Foundation passanger vessel to observe humpback whales in Hawaii. (aplikasinya dapat dilakukan selama perjalanan wisata mengamati langsung paus komersial selama 2,5 jam di atas kapal penumpang Pacific Whale Foundation untuk mengamati paus bungkuk di Hawaii).

Maka tujuan teks di atas adalah untuk “Define ecotourism from theories of learning and their application”.(menetapkan ekowisata dari segi teori pembelajaran dan aplikasinya).
Jawaban E

Soal No.5
The word “its” (paragraph 4) refers to …
  1. Interpretive model
  2. Extended model
  3. Marine mammal trip
  4. Whale-watch program
  5. Environment-based model

PEMBAHASAN :
Kata “its” (paragraf 4) mengacu pada …

Perhatikan kalimat berikut ini:

The model has more recently been extended to include snorkeling excursions to coral reef areas near Maui, Hawaii. (model tersebut baru-baru ini diperluas untuk mencakup kunjungan snorkeling ke daerah terumbu karang di dekat Maui, Hawaii).

Maka kata “its” mengacu pada extended model.
Jawaban B

Soal No.6
Which of the following can best replace the word “venture” (paragraph 4)?
  1. Effort
  2. Course
  3. Activity
  4. Pleasure
  5. Experience

PEMBAHASAN :
Manakah dari berikut ini yang paling tepat menggantikan kata “venture” (paragraf 4)?

Perhatikan pada kalimat: Each whale-watch trip is a different venture, controlled by such variable factors as the number and type of passangers weather conditions, what the whales choose to do (or not to do, as the case may be), the type of vessel, and the experience of the captain.

Venture = petualangan

Beberapa opsi di bawah ini yang tepat:

  • Effort: usaha
  • Course: kursus
  • Activity: aktivitas
  • Pleasure: kesenangan
  • Experience: pengalaman

Jawaban E

Soal No.7
What is the topic of the text?
  1. Definition of ecotourism
  2. Learning through excursions
  3. Ecotourism as learning resources
  4. Influences of environment in learning enduction
  5. Learning controlled by environmental variable

PEMBAHASAN :
Apa topik dari teks tersebut?

Perhatikan kalimat berikut: Nonetheless, it is possible to view the trip as a structured experince, and to guide participants through an education sequence that has very clear goals and objectives that can be monitored and evaluated over time. (meskipun demikian, dimungkinkan untuk memandu peserta melalui sebuah rangkaian pembelajaran dengan tujuan dan sasaran yang sangat jelas, dapat dipantau dan dievaluasi dari waktu kewaktu).

Dari kalimat di atas dapat diketahui topik teks tersebut adalah Ecotourism as learning resources (ekowisata sebagai sarana pembelajaran).
Jawaban C

Soal No.8
Paragraph 4 implies that …
  1. An education is for fun
  2. The guide is the instructor
  3. The captain organizes the trip
  4. Learning is through experiencing
  5. Participants are evaluated at the end of the trip

PEMBAHASAN :
Paragraf 4 menyiratkan bahwa …

Perhatikan kalimat pada paragraf 4: Its application can be examined in the context of a typical 2.5 h commercial whale-watch trip aboard a Pacific Whale Foundation passanger vessel to observe humpback whales in Hawaii. (aplikasinya dapat dilakukan selama perjalanan wisata mengamati langsung paus komersial selama 2,5 jam di atas kapal penumpang Pacific Whale Foundation untuk mengamati paus bungkuk di Hawaii).

Maka makna yang tersirat  pada paragraf 4 adalah learning is through experiencing (belajar melalui pengalaman)
Jawaban D

Soal No.9
The text mentions all of the following, EXCEPT …
  1. Additional important benefits of ecotourism
  2. Impact of ecotourism on environment understanding
  3. Excursions because of various independent variables
  4. Brain and environment interaction influencing cognitive growth
  5. The interpretive model covering both waters and terrestrial excursion

PEMBAHASAN :
Teks tersebut menyebutkan semua hal berikut, KECUALI The interpretive model covering both waters and terrestrial excursion. Kalimat ini tidak disebutkan pada teks di atas, seharusnya perhatikan pada kalimat berikut: Borrowing upon principles of cognitive psycology, my colleagues and I have developed an interpreted mode for presenting information about marine mammals and their ocean environment during whale-watch in Hawaii and Australia.
Jawaban E

Questions 10-15 are based on the following text

Population growth occurs because there are currently  three births for every death. In the past, the crude birthrates were only slightly higher than crude death rates, but with imprivements in medicine and economic growth, the death rate fell more than birth rates. Much of the world’s population growth is occuring in less-developed countries, which are unable to support such growth. The causal effect between poverty and population growth can be looked at in two ways. First, population growth causes poverty as, the limited resources are depleted and there are too many people for the available goods, resulting in poverty. The other view is that poverty causes high population growth. Also, parents believe that having many children will ensure that several of them will survive to take care of them in their old age. Cultures in which children are a form of security encourage high population growth, as children reach reproductive age and have large families.

Much of the growth is happening disproportionately in urban areas. Cities are environmentally, harmful because they import many resources for the people that live there, and they export their wastes. They also have an impact on the local and regional meteorology and are centers for social problems such as crime, homelessness, and unemployment to name a few . cities do offer many amenities such as cultural opportunities, jobs, and education. There are some good environmental aspects to cities, such as the promotion of efficiency in transportation, housing, utilities; the provision of necessary goods and services; and the accomodation of large numbers of people within a relatively small space. The biggest problem with cities is that people want the benefits of a city while still living in the country. This leads to urban sprawl and suburban.

(Adapted from http://www.preservearticies.comf201103304817.Accessed February22,2014)

Soal No.10
The purpose of the text is to …
  1. Show negative impacts of population growth
  2. Descibe factors contributing to poverty in cities
  3. Analyze causes of economic growth to population
  4. Compare population growth in the past and the present
  5. Discuss population problems in urban areas of developing countries

PEMBAHASAN :
Tujuan teks tersebut adalah …

Perhatikan kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  • Population growth occurs because there are currently three births for every death. (pertumbuhan penduduk terjadi karena saat ini terdapat tiga kelahiran untuk setiap kematian).
  • The causal effect between poverty and population growth can be looked at in two ways. (efek sebab akibat antara kemiskinan dan pertumbuhan penduduk dapat dilihat dalam dua cara).
  • Much of the growth is happening disproportionately in urban areas. (sebagian besar pertumbuhan terjadi secara tidak proporsional di daerah perkotaan).

 

Maka tujuan teks tersebut adalah show negative impacts of population growth (menunjukkan dampak negatif dari pertumbuhan penduduk).
Jawaban A

Soal No.11
In which lines does the author assums people ‘s expectation of village life with city convenience?
  1. 4-6
  2. 8-9
  3. 11-12
  4. 12-14
  5. 17-18

PEMBAHASAN :
Di baris manakah penulis berasumsi tentang harapan kehidupan masyarakat desa dengan kenyamanan di kota?

Kalimat yang menunjukkan asumsi penulis tentang harapan kehidupan masyarakat desa dengan kenyamanan di kota sebagai berikut:

The biggest problem with cities is that people want the benefits of a city while still living in the country. This leads to urban sprawl and suburban. (masalah terbesar dengan kota adalah bahwa orang menginginkan manfaat dari sebuah kota saat masih tinggal di negara tersebut. Hal ini menyebabkan  kehidupan pinggiran kota). Kalimat tersebut terletak pada baris 17 – 18.
Jawaban E

Soal No.12
The pronoun “they” (line 12) refers to …
  1. People
  2. Areas
  3. Resources
  4. Cities
  5. Families

PEMBAHASAN :
Perhatikan kalimat berikut ini:

Cities are environmentally, harmful because they import many resources for the people that live there, and they export their wastes. (kota berwawasan lingkungan, berbahaya karena mereka mengimpor banyak sumber daya untuk orang-orang yang tinggal di sana, dan mereka mengekspor limbahnya).

Kata ganti tersebut mengacu pada “cities”.
Jawaban D

Soal No.13
It can be inferred from the text that …
  1. Life quality of cities is worse than that of suburban
  2. Poverty in a country is linked to its rapid birthrates
  3. The less developed a country is the worse its economic growth is
  4. Less developed countries tend to show a higher rate of population growth
  5. The more children parents have, the better their economy will be

PEMBAHASAN :
Perhatikan kalimat berikut:

Much of the world’s population growth is occuring in less-developed countries, which are unable to support such growth (sebagain besar pertumbuhan penduduk dunia terjadi di negara-negara kurang maju, yang tidak mampu mendukung pertumbuhan tersebut).

Maka kesimpulannya adalah less developed countries tend to show a higher rate of population growth (negara-negara berkembang cenderung menunjukkan tingkat pertumbuhan penduduk yang tinggi).
Jawaban D

Soal No.14
The writer organizes the ideas in the text by …
  1. Showing the causes of population growth and their effect
  2. Defining population growth followed with several examples
  3. Arguing against population growth, followed with a case in urban places
  4. Describing a historical account of population growth in the past and the present
  5. Comparing effects of population growth in countries of different development

PEMBAHASAN :
Penulis menyusun ide-ide pada teks dengan …

Pada paragraf 1 penulis menjelaskan ide penyebab terjadinya pertumbuhan populasi, sedangkan pada paragraf 2 penulis menjelaskan ide dampak pertumbuhan populasi. Jadi ide-ide penulis disusun dengan showing the causes of population growth and their effect (menunjukkan penyebab pertumbuhan penduduk dan pengaruhnya).
Jawaban A

Soal No.15
Which of the following is true according to the text?
  1. High population growth results in a problem where cities cannot provide enough jobs
  2. Parents now tend to have few children in less-developed countries
  3. Large families are tolerated in less-developed countries due to their predominat belief
  4. Economic growth gives little contribution to population growth
  5. In the past there were three were three births for every death in less-developed

PEMBAHASAN :
Manakah pernyataan berikut ini yang benar menurut teks?

Perhatikan kalimat berikut ini:

The other view is that poverty causes high population growth. Also, parents believe that having many children will ensure that several of them will survive to take care of them in their old age. Cultures in which children are a form of security encourage high population growth, as children reach reproductive age and have large families.

Maka pernyataan yang benar adalah large families are tolerated in less-developed countries due to their predominat  belief (keluarga besar  ditoleransi di negara kurang maju karena kepercayaan mereka yang mendominasi).
Jawaban C

Sebelumnya Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal & Pembahasan Statistika SD
Selanjutnya Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal & Pembahasan Penggolongan Hewan Berdasarkan Makanannya SD

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