Soal UTBK Bahasa Inggris Tahun 2016 Dan Pembahasannya

Soal UTBK Bahasa Inggris Tahun 2016 Dan Pembahasannya

Questions 1-3 are based on the following passage

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are group of highly inheritable behavioral disorder the pose major personal and public health concerns. Patients with ASDs have mild to severe communication difficulties, repetitive behavior and social challenges. Such disorders significantly challenge an individual’s ability to conduct daily activities and function normally in society. Currently there are very few medication options that effectively treat ASDs.

Recognizing a need to better undestand the biology that produces ASD symptoms, scientists at Duke-NUS and NN, Singapore, have identified a novel mechanism that potentially links abnormal brain development to the cause of ASDs, this new knowledge will help to improve the diagnosis and development of therapeutic interventions for ASDs.

The study has shown how one brain-specific microRNA (miR-128) plays a key role in causing abnormal brain development. microRNAs are small are molecules that regulate gene expression in the human body to ensure proper cellular functions. Although it was known that miR-128 is misregulated in some patients with autism, what that meant and how it functioned was not known.

The research team showed that miR-128 targets a protein called PCM 1 that is critical to the cell division of neural precursor cell (NPCs). NPCs during early brain development have two fates – they either stay as NPCs and undergo self – renewal or become neurons through differentiation. The dysfunctional regulation of PCM 1 by misregulated miR-128 impairs brain development, which murderlie brain size changes in people with ASDs.

For the first time, the researchers have managed to show that miR-128 is a mechanism that regulated early neuronal behavior during brain development. They believe that targeting this mechanism may be answer to diagnose and treat ASDs that are caused by abnormal brain development.

This important study suggests a link between a key neurological disease gene and regulation of microRNAs in the brain. However, the researchers are just starting to undestand how misregulated miR-128 expression can damage our brain activities. Much more work needs to be done in this area.

(Diadaptasi dari https://www.duke-nus.edu.sg/news/explaining-autism-study-identifies-novel-mechanism-causes-abnormal-brain-development)

Soal No.1
What is the topic of passage?
  1. A new mechanism that could links abnormal brain development to the causeof ASDs.
  2. A better understanding of biology that produce symptoms of ASD.
  3. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders
  4. The activities of the joint research team Duke-NUS and NNI Singapore
  5. The link between a key neurological disease gene and microRNAs regulation in the brain

PEMBAHASAN :
Topik dari teks di atas dapat dilihat pada paragraf ke-2: “Recognizing a need to better undestand the biology that produces ASD symptoms, scientists at Duke-NUS and NN, Singapore, have identified a novel mechanism that potentially links abnormal brain development to the cause of ASDs, this new knowledge will help to improve the diagnosis and development of therapeutic interventions for ASDs.” topiknya yaitu “… to improve the diagnosis and development of therapeutic interventions for ASDs.”(… memperbaiki diagnosis dan pengembangan terapi bedah untuk ASDs)
Jawaban C

Soal No.2
The word impairs in line 41 means …
  1. Puts together
  2. Harms
  3. Slows down
  4. Drops
  5. Enhances

PEMBAHASAN :
Perhatikan paragraf ke – 4 pada kalimat terakhir: “The dysfunctional regulation of PCM 1 by misregulated miR-128 impairs brain development, which murderlie brain size changes in people with ASDs.” Kata impairs memiliki arti merusak. Maka dari beberapa pilihan dapat kita artikan sebagai berikut:

  1. Puts together: menyatukan
  2. Harms: merugikan
  3. Slows down: melambat
  4. Drops: menurunkan
  5. Enhances: meningkatkan

Maka kata yang bermakna sama yaitu harms (merugikan)
Jawaban B

Soal No.3
What do the researchers expect to be able to do as a result of their findings?
  1. Cure people who have ASDs
  2. Identify people who have ASDs
  3. Develop new medications for ASDs
  4. Stop abnormal brain development
  5. Reverse brain size changes in people with ASDs

PEMBAHASAN :
Pertanyaan di atas artinya: apa yang peneliti harapkan dapat dilakukan dari hasil temuan mereka mereka?

Perhatikan paragraf ke – 4 pada kalimat terakhir: “The dysfunctional regulation of PCM 1 by misregulated miR-128 impairs brain development, which murderlie brain size changes in people with ASDs.” (regulasi disfungsional PCM 1 oleh misregulasi miR-128 merusak perkembangan otak, yang menyebabkan perubahan ukuran otak pada orang dengan ASD).

Maka jawaban yang tepat dari pertanyaan di atas adalah “Stop abnormal brain development” artinya menghentikan perkembangan otak yang tidak normal.
Jawaban D

Questions 4-7 are based on the following passage

Over the last two decades, the use of ICT has been an important topic in education. On the hand, studies have shown that ICT can enhance teaching and learning outcomes. For example, in science and mathematics education, scholars have documented that the use of ICT can improve students’ conceptual understanding, problem solving, and team working skills. Consequently, most curriculum documents state the importance of ICT and encourage school teachers to use them. However, teachers need to be specifically trained in order to integrate ICT in their teaching.

School are known to be resistant to innovation and change. However, the spread of ICT is beginning to affect how teachers teach. One of the current issue about the use of ICT is how it is integrated into the curriculum. The curriculum documents provide arguments for introducing ICT in the school setting. Therefore, schools expect that graduated from teacher education programs have a reasonable knowledge of how to use ICT. However, this may not be the the case because most current teachers’ pre-service preparation, and subsequent in-service courses were designed by using traditional educational technology and setting. Thus, the participants in the courses are not familiar with the processes, interaction patterns, feature and possibilities of teaching learning processes based on ICT.

This issue becomes complicated because the students’ thinking skills are often weak. Also, they typically lack information literacy skills although they were born in or after 1982. In addition, they belong to the “Next Generation”. Furthermore, they are accustomed to operating in a digital environment for communication, information gathering, and analysis. The problem is that students do not have to understand how their uses of technology affect their habit of learning.

Effective development of pre-service teachers’ ICT proficiency does not seem to be direct process, but is the one asking for a careful, complex approach. First, a needs assessment is important to find out what ICT skills and knowledge teachers need at school. Second, designers of teacher education programs should know the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT and their attitudes toward ICT integration into curriculum. Third, teacher education programs need to consider the two typical arguments that support the ICT use in school.

(Diadaptasi dari http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/view/498/229)

Soal No.4
With the statement one of the current issues about the use of ICT is how it is integrated into the curriculum. In line 21-23, the author intends to …

  1. Emphasize the need for teachers with good literacy in technology
  2. Explore the reasons for including ICT in the curriculum document
  3. Explain the curriculum documents for ICT introduction in education
  4. Argue that current teachers already have good knowledge of using ICT
  5. Show that teacher education programs have been running expected ICT curriculum

PEMBAHASAN :
 Pernyataan “one of the current issues about the use of ICT is how it is integrated into the curriculum”(salah satu masalah saat ini tentang penggunaan TIK adalah bagaimana mengintegrasikannya ke dalam kurikulum) pada soal di atas penulis bermaksud untuk, perhatikan paragraf ke-2 kalimat ke-4, yaitu: “ Therefore, schools expect that graduated from teacher education programs have a reasonable knowledge of how to use ICT”(oleh karena itu, sekolah berharap bahwa lulusan dari program pendidikan guru memiliki pengetahuan layak tentang bagaimana menggunakan TIK).

Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah “Emphasize the need for teachers with good literacy in technology”(menekankan pentingnya  guru dengan literasi yang baik dalam bidang teknologi).
Jawaban A

Soal No.5
The author’s idea of the relationship between the use of ICT and learning outcome is analogous with …
  1. Vitamin-health
  2. Speed-aeroplane
  3. Harvest-irrigation
  4. Cellphone-crime
  5. Books-intelligence

PEMBAHASAN :
Gagasan penulis tentang hubungan antara pemanfaatan TIK dan hasil belajar sama dengan hubungan antara …, perhatikan pada paragraf ke-1 kalimat ke-2: “On the hand, studies have shown that ICT can enhance teaching and learning outcomes” (di sisi lain, penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa TIK dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar dan mengajar). Kesimpulannya TIK dan hasil belajar sangat berkaitan seperti hal vitamin dan kesehatan.
Jawaban A

Soal No.6
The assumption the author has about teacher education programs is that …
  1. The programs have introduced a reasonable knowledge of how to use ICT
  2. The programs have found out what ICT skill and knowledge the teachers need
  3. The programs have given materials related to the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT
  4. The programs were still designed in reference to traditional educational technology and setting
  5. The programs have participants who are familiar with the processes of technology mediated educational transactions

PEMBAHASAN :
Asumsi yang penulis miliki tentang program pendidikan guru adalah …, perhatikan paragraf ke-4: “Effective development of pre-service teachers’ ICT proficiency does not seem to be direct process, but is the one asking for a careful, complex approach. First, a needs assessment is important to find out what ICT skills and knowledge teachers need at school. Second, designers of teacher education programs should know the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT and their attitudes toward ICT integration into curriculum. Third, teacher education programs need to consider the two typical arguments that support the ICT use in school.”

Pada kalimat yang ditebalkan dapat diartikan sebagai berikut:

Kedua, perancang dari program pendidikan guru harus mengetahui persepsi guru pra jabatan tentang TIK dan sikap mereka terhadap integrasi TIK ke dalam kurikulum. Maka asumsinya adalah “The programs have given materials related to the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT”artinya program yang diberikan materinya harus berkaitan dengan persepsi guru prajabatan tentang TIK.
Jawaban C

Soal No.7
Which lines of the passage ilustrate  the ideal ICT teacher education programs most effectively?
  1. 15 – 17
  2. 29 – 34
  3. 45 – 48
  4. 48 – 50
  5. 51 – 54

PEMBAHASAN :
Baris mana pada teks  tersebut yang menggambarkan program pendidikan guru TIK ideal yang paling efektif? Perhatikan paragraf ke – 4: “Effective development of pre-service teachers’ ICT proficiency does not seem to be direct process, but is the one asking for a careful, complex approach. First, a needs assessment is important to find out what ICT skills and knowledge teachers need at school. Second, designers of teacher education programs should know the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT and their attitudes toward ICT integration into curriculum. Third, teacher education programs need to consider the two typical arguments that support the ICT use in school.” Baris pada paragraf ke – 4 adalah baris ke 51 – 54.
Jawaban D

Question 8 – 11 are based on the following passage

Climate change is changing our economy, health, and communities in diverse ways. Scientists warn that if we do not aggressively curb climate change now, the result will likely be disastrous.

Carbon dioxide and other global warming pollutants are collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the Sun’s heat and causing the planet to warm up.

Although local temperatures fluctuate naturally, over the past 50 years the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history. Scientists say that unless we curb the emissions that cause climate change, average U.S. temperatures could be 3 to 9 degrees higher by the end of the century.

Climate change is a complex phenomenon, and its full-scale impacts are hard to predict far in advance. But each year scientists learn more about how climate change is affecting the planet and our communities, and most agree that certain consequences are likely to occur if current trends continue.

In addition to impacting our water resources, energy supply, transprtation, agriculture, and ecosystems, the United States Global Change Research Program concludes that climate change also proses unique challenges to human health, for example, significant increases in the risk of illness and detah related to extreme heat and waves  are very likely. Some diseases transmitted by food, water, and insect are likely to increase. Certain groups, including children, the alderfly, and the poor, are most vulnerable to a range of climate-related health effect. These impacts will result in significant costs to our families and the economy.

Here is the a good news: technologies exist today to make cars that run cleaner and burn less gas, modernize power plants and generate electricity from nonpolluting sources, and cut our electricity use through energy efficiency. The challenge is to be sure these solutions are put to use.

Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is tackling global warming on two main fronts – cutting pollution and expanding clean energy. Transitioning to a clean energy economy will bring new job and reduce a air pollution. We cannot afford to wait.

(diadaptasi dari https://group.axa.com/newsroom/news/global-warming)

Soal No.8
It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that …
  1. Carbon dioxside and other pollutants blanket the atmosphere
  2. Carbon dioxide and other pollutants collect the sun’s heat
  3. The sun’s heat blankets the atmosphere
  4. Carbon dioxside and other pollutants warm up the atmosphere
  5. The atmosphere accumulates carbon dioxside and other pollutants

PEMBAHASAN :
Paragraph 2: “Carbon dioxide and other global warming pollutants are collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the Sun’s heat and causing the planet to warm up” (karbondioksida dan polutan pemanasan global lainnya berkumpul di atmosfer seperti selimut yang menebal, menjebak panas matahari dan menyebabkan planet memanas).

It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that (dapat disimpulkan dari paragraf ke – 2 bahwa): Carbon dioxside and other pollutants blanket the atmosphere (karbondioksida dan polutan lainnya menyelimuti atmosfer).
Jawaban A

Soal No.9
The sentence ‘Climate change is complex phenomenon, and its ful scale, impact are hard to predict far in advance. ‘In line 19-21, is closet in the meaning to …
  1. It is imposible to forecast the effects of climate change
  2. It is intricate to understand the nature of climate change
  3. It is hard to understand the full-scale effects of climate scale
  4. It is complicated to predict climate change due to its full-scale effect
  5. It is difficult to precisely predict the effects of climate change due to its complex nature

PEMBAHASAN :
Perubahan iklim merupakan fenomena yang kompleks, dan dampaknya sepenuhnya sulit untuk diprediksi jauh sebelumnya. Kalimat tersebut terdapat pada paragraf ke-4 yaitu: “Climate change is a complex phenomenon, and its full-scale impacts are hard to predict far in advance. But each year scientists learn more about how climate change is affecting the planet and our communities, and most agree that certain consequences are likely to occur if current trends continue.”

Kalimat yang memiliki makna sama dengan kalimat di atas adalah “It is complicated to predict climate change due to its full-scale effect” (sulit untuk memprediksikan perubahan iklim karena efeknya yang menyeluruh).
Jawaban D

Soal No.10
Which the following abviously shows the author’s bias?
  1. Climate change is canging our economy, health, and communities in diverse ways
  2. Climate change is a complex phenomenon, and its full-scale impacts are hard topredict far in advance
  3. Significant increases in the risk of illness and death related to extreme heat and heat waves are very likely
  4. The challenge is to be sure these solutions are put to use
  5. Transitioning to a clean energy economy will bring new jobs and reduce air pollution. We cannot afford to wait

PEMBAHASAN :
Maksud pertanyaan di atas adalah manakah berikut ini yang dengan jelas menunjukkan bias penulis?

Perhatikan pada paragraf ke – 1: “Climate change is changing our economy, health, and communities in diverse ways. Scientists warn that if we do not aggressively curb climate change now, the result will likely be disastrous” (perubahan iklim mengubah perekonomian, kesehatan, dan masyarakat  dengan cara yang beragam . Para ilmuwan memperingatkan bahwa jika kita tidak secara agresif mengendalikan perubahan iklim sekarang, pada akhirnya mungkin akan terjadi bencana).

Maka yang menunjukkan bias penulis adalah “Climate change is canging our economy, health, and communities in diverse ways.”
Jawaban A

Soal No.11
The author presents the unique challenges to human health due to climate change by …
  1. Discussing several examples
  2. Pointing out several examples
  3. Explaining a research program
  4. Outlining a research program
  5. Making a prediction

PEMBAHASAN :
Penulis menyuguhkan tantangan yang unik bagi kesehatan manusia akibat perubahan iklim dengan … Perhatikan pada paragraf ke-5: “In addition to impacting our water resources, energy supply, transprtation, agriculture, and ecosystems, the United States Global Change Research Program concludes that climate change also proses unique challenges to human health, for example, significant increases in the risk of illness and detah related to extreme heat and waves  are very likely. Some diseases transmitted by food, water, and insect are likely to increase. Certain groups, including children, the alderfly, and the poor, are most vulnerable to a range of climate-related health effect. These impacts will result in significant costs to our families and the economy.”

Pada paragraf ke-5 (kalimat yang ditebalkan) dijelaskan beberapa contoh tantangan yang unik bagi kesehatan manusia akibat perubahan iklim, “Discussing several examples
Jawaban A

Questions 12-15 are based on the following passage

Despite its name, heartburn has nothing to do with the heart. Some of the symptoms, however, are similar to those of a heart attack or heart disease. Heartburn is an irritation of the esophagus that is caused by stomach acid, which can create a burning discomfort in the upper abdomen or below the breast bone.

With gravity’s help, a muscular valve callled the lower esophageal sphincter, or LES, keeps stomach acid the stomach. The LES is located where the esophagus meets the stomach – below the rib cage and slightly left of center. Normally it opens to allow food into the stomach or to permit belching, and the closes again. If, however, the LES opens too often or does not close tight enough, stomach acid can reflux, or seep, into the esophagus and cause the burning sensation. Occasional heartburn is not dangerous, but chronic heartburn or gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) can sometimes lead to serious problems.

The basic cause of heartburn is a lower esophageal sphincter, or LES, that does not tighten as it should. Two excesses often contribute to this problem: too much food in the stomach (overeating) or too much presure on the stomach (frequently from obesity, pregnancy, or constipation). Certain foods commonly relax the LES including tomatoes, citrus fruits, garlic, onions, chocolate, coffee, alcohol, caffeinated product, and peppermint. Meals high in fats and oils (animal or vegetable) often lead to heart burn, as do certain medications. Stress and lack of sleep can increase acid production and can cause heartburn. Smoking, which relaxes the LES and stimulates stomach acid, is major contributor.

How does heartbun happen?when you eat, food goes from you mouth down a tube called the esophagus into your stomach. In between the esophagus and the stomach is an opening called the lower esophageal sphincter. This muscular valve act like a door to let food in to your stomach. It normally closes quickly behind the food to keep stomach acids – which break down the food – from backing up into your esophagus.

If that valve does not close all the way, stomach acid backs up, or refluxes, into the esophagus. Stomach acid irritates the linong of the esophagus and causes a painful burning sensation. The feeling may be worse after bending over or when you lie down.

Certain foods and drinks – like tomato product, alcohol, citrus, coffe, and fatty or spicy foods – may be more likely to irritate the lower esophageal sphincter and make heartburn worse. Being overweight, eating big meals, wearing clothes that are tight around the waist and smoking also raise your risk for heartburn. Learning what triggers your heartburn can help you case the burn.

(Diadaptasi dari http://www.gghospital.in/blog/heartburn-cause-and-cure/)

Soal No.12
Which of the following reflects the author’s attitude toward the topic of the passage?
  1. Persuasive
  2. Indifferent
  3. Informative
  4. Skeptical
  5. Optimistic

PEMBAHASAN :
Manakah dari kata berikut ini yang mencerminkan sikap penulis terhadap topik dari bacaan tersebut?

Teks di atas bersifat menginformasikan (informative) karena berisi informasi dan keterangan tentang heartburn (maag) yaitu gejala dan faktor-faktor penyebab maag.
Jawaban C

Soal No.13
The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses …
  1. Other factors causing heartburn
  2. Kinds of food recommended
  3. Overweight related to heartburn
  4. Smoking effect on heartburn
  5. The best way to cure heartburn

PEMBAHASAN :
Perhatikan paragraf ke-3: “The basic cause of heartburn is a lower esophageal sphincter, or LES, that does not tighten as it should. Two excesses often contribute to this problem: too much food in the stomach (overeating) or too much presure on the stomach (frequently from obesity, pregnancy, or constipation). Certain foods commonly relax the LES including tomatoes, citrus fruits, garlic, onions, chocolate, coffee, alcohol, caffeinated product, and peppermint. Meals high in fats and oils (animal or vegetable) often lead to heart burn, as do certain medications. Stress and lack of sleep can increase acid production and can cause heartburn. Smoking, which relaxes the LES and stimulates stomach acid, is major contributor.” Dari paragraf ke-3 dapat diketahui bahwa teks tersebut membahas tentang faktor-faktor lain yang menyebabkan rasa panas dalam perut (Other factors causing heartburn).
Jawaban A

Soal No.14
The passage can be summarized as follows …
  1. Certain food and behaviors can trigger reflux that is the main cause heartburn
  2. Stress and lack of sleep can increase acid production and can cause heartburn
  3. Understanding causes, symptoms, and how heartburn occurs helps sufferers prepare for its attacks
  4. The muscular valve in the abdomen works in acertain way that can lead to heartburn
  5. The feeling of heartburn can go from bad to worse when doing some physical

PEMBAHASAN :
Ringkasan teks di atas adalah “Certain food and behaviors can trigger reflux that is the main cause heartburn” (makanan dan perilaku tertentu dapat memicu refluks yang merupakan penyebab utama penyakit maag).
Jawaban A

Soal No.15
What will happen when the lower esophageal sphincter does not close after entry of food?
  1. The esophagus may close down
  2. It may cause the sufferer to vomit
  3. It may irritate the lining of the esophagus
  4. Stomach acid backs up into esophagus
  5. The food it breaks down may open the esophagus

PEMBAHASAN :
Apa yang akan terjadi jika sfingter esofagus bagian bawah tidak menutup setelah masuknya makanan?

Perhatikan pada paragraf ke-2: “Normally it opens to allow food into the stomach or to permit belching, and the closes again. If, however, the LES opens too often or does not close tight enough, stomach acid can reflux, or seep, into the esophagus and cause the burning sensation. Occasional heartburn is not dangerous, but chronic heartburn or gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) can sometimes lead to serious problems

(jika LES terlalu sering atau tidak menutup cukup rapat, asam lambung dapat naik kembali, atau meresap ke kerongkongan dan menyebabkan sensasi terbakar).

Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah asam lambung naik ke kerongkongkongan (Stomach acid backs up into esophagus)
Jawaban D

Sebelumnya Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal & Pembahasan Pangkat Dan Akar SD
Selanjutnya Rangkuman Materi, Contoh Soal & Pembahasan Pengukuran SD

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