Soal UTBK Bahasa Inggris Tahun 2018 Dan Pembahasannya
Social norms are the implicit social rules that govern behavior within a community. Norms are not directly established; instead, they develop over time as people go about their daily behaviors, sense people’s reactions to those behaviors, and observe what other people are doing. Social norms differ, depending on the group of people, community, or culture. What is considered fully normal, even admirable, in one group may be met with disapproval in another (e.g., offices where casual dress is normal vs. offices where everyone must where must wear a suit). According to psychologist Robert Cialdini, people are constantly looking for “social proof” to guide their own behavior. They look for clues to what other people are doing in order to understand the appropriate behavior in a given situation. Social proof of what is acceptable is a particularly powerful guide to behavior when the situation is ambiguous or new.
In relation to social norms, one of the big challenges we face is creating a sustainable culture where so many unsustainable actions are considered perfectly normal and even something to strive for: driving alone, living in a very large home, eating foods that have traveled long distances, eating meat at every meal, having a weed-free green grass lawn, and continuously shopping for new consumer goods. Sustainable behaviors, such as buying second-hand or taking short shower, on the other hand, are often seen as lower or undesirable in status.
Social norms create opportunities for change; for one thing, they are dinamic and constantly shifting (just think about fashion trends). The goal for those of us who want to bring about a more sustainable society is to quickly bring suistainable behaviors into the realm of normal, acceptable one, and something people aspire to. How do we accomplish this? We needs to give people evidence, social proof, that sustainable behavior is acceptable and desirable.
(Adapted from: https://www.pca.state.mn.us/sites/default/files/p-ee1-01.pdf)
- Social proof
- Social disorder
- Daily behavior
- Sustainable behavior
- Acceptable culture
Teks di atas menjelaskan tentang tingkah laku atau behavior karena pada teks tersebut sering menyebutkan tentang tingkah laku. sedangkan untuk menentukan fokus utama pada teks , lihat kalimat terakhir pada teks di atas, menyatakan bahwa sustainable behavior yang menjadi langkah efektif untuk membawa more sustainable society. Maka fokus teks tersebut adalah sustainable behavior.
- A bed feeling
- An unacceptable feeling
- An unsustainable behavior
- A different opinion
- A negative opinion
Pada teks di atas, kata disapproval memiliki makna penolakan, ketidaksetujuan, atau perbedaan pendapat. Maka kata yang sesuai adalah a different opinion.
- By aspiring people
- By making it dinamic
- By establishing norms
- By providing proofto the society
- By giving opportunities for change
Perhatikan kalimat di bawah ini:
The goal for those of us who want to bring about a more sustainable society is to quickly bring suistainable behaviors into the realm of normal, acceptable one, and something people aspire to.
Berdasarkan kalimat di atas dapat diketahui jawaban yang sesuai yaitu by aspiring people.
Technology tools can help educators make and strengthen home-school connections. With technology as a means of sharing information and communicating with one another, early chilhood educators have an opportunity to build stronger relationshipwith parents. Early chilhood educators alaways have had a responsibility to support parents and families by sharing knowledge about child development and learning.
Technology tools such as smartphones, mobile device, and apps offer affordable ways for busy family members to communicate with their child’s teachers and caregivers. Internet-based communication tools offer new opportunities for video calling and conferencing when face-to-face meetings are not possible; it can connect children to other family members who live at the distance. Educators have a responsibility to parents and families to model affective uses of technology, media, and social media that are safe, responsible, and ethical.
Techers can use digital portfolios that include photographs as well as audio and video recordings to archive a child’s accomplishment and developmental progression with families in face-to-face conferences, or through social media tools. Displaying photos in the classroom of children’s drawings or block buildings can help families understand the critical role of play in early childhood development. Sending weekly, monthly, or even daily updates through social media or e-mail can help families feel more connected. Inviting children to take a picture of something they have done and helping them upload the photo to a file that can be e-mailed also contribute to their learning more about the funtions of reading and writing.
Most educators understand the value of writing down by using e-mail, educational texting, or educational communications tools. This activity demonstrates the concept about communication and helps to build digital literacy skill at the same time. If information is stored on a computer the photos and notes can be printed and given to families. Modelling the effective use of of technology and interactive media for parent communication and family engagement also creates opportunitiesto help parents themselves become better informed, empowers them to make responsible choices about technology use and screen time at home, engages them as teachers encourage co-viewing co-participation, and joint media engagement.
(Adapted from: https://www.naeyc.org/sites/default/files/globally-shared/downloads/PDFs/resources/topics/PS-technology_WEB.pdf)
How are ideas in paragraph 1 an 2 related?
- Paragraph 2 explains further the idea presented in paragraph 1
- Paragraph 2 contradicts the idea in paragraph 1
- Paragraph 2 is an introduction to idea in paragraph 1
- Paragraph 2 provides examples of comparisons presented in paragraph 1
- Paragraph 2 explains the effect of the idea stated in paragraph 1
Sebuah teks terdiri dari satu kesatuan informasi yang tersusun atas paragrap-paragrap, sehingga hubungan antarparagraf membentuk ikatan penting mengenai penjabaran kesatuan informasi dan makna dalam paragrap. Jenis-jenis paragrap berdasarkan hubungan antarparagrap dibagi menjadi:
- Hubungan sebab akibat
- Hubungan analogi
- Hubungan generalis/ umum-khusus
Maka penjelasannya sebagai berikut:
Paragrap 1: penjabaran mengenai manfaat teknologi secara umum dalam hubungan guru PAUD dan orang tua.
Paragrap 2: penjabaran mengenai fakta dari pemanfaat penggunaan teknologi yang dicontohkan berupa smartphones. Seperti terlihat pada kalimat pertama paragrap 2 yang mengandung konjungsi such as, berarti tanda tersebut menandakan yang akan dibicarakan selanjutnya adalah contoh/ example.
The author will apparently agree that …
- Busy family members may afford smartphones and mobile devices to stay in touch with their colleagues.
- Educators have a responsibility to demonstrate the effective use of technology and interactive media in parent teacher communications.
- Technology tools are necessary to connect children to other family members who are separated thousands mile away.
- Educators have no responsibility to guarantee that technology tools they use are safe, secure, healthy, and responsible.
- The effectiveness of technology and media use in class by educators is only factor determining the success of parent-teacher communications.
Maksud dari pertanyaan tersebut adalah pernyataan yang tepat berdasarkan teks di atas, lihat pada kalimat terakhir paragraf kedua “ Educators have a responsibility to parents and families to model affective uses of technology, media, and social media that are safe, responsible, and ethical. “ Kata model memiliki makna yang sama dengan demonstrate yaitu mencontohkan.
The author holds an assumption that …
- All technology tools are capable of measuring and recording children’s learning activities.
- All parents have accesses to technology tools to helps build good communications between parents and educators.
- Displaying photos of children’s drawing and block buildings can help parents understand why children should play a lot in schools.
- Sending weekly or monthly emails to parents to share the development of a child is quite difficult to be done by educators.
- Taking a picture of a child may not contribute to the successof a learning proceess if it is not shared with parents.
Pertanyaan di atas bermakna bahwa penulis memiliki asumsi, jawabannya berdasarkan teks yang disusun sesuai dengan pemahaman pembaca. Lihat pada kalimat kedua paragraf ketiga “ Displaying photos in the classroom of children’s drawings or block buildings can help families understand the critical role of play in early childhood development.”
Maksud dari kalimat di atas adalah untuk anak usia dini bermain merupakan belajar, seperti memajang foto di kelas gambar atau menyusun bangunan dari balok. Hal ini yang harus dipahami oleh para orang tua.
Which paragraph(s) ilustrate(s) the effective use of technology and media to provide parents with information of what is going on in a class?
- 1 dan 2
- 3 dan 4
Pertanyaan di atas terkait paragraf yang menunjukkan penggunaan teknologi dan media yang efektif untuk memberikan informasi kepada orang tua mengenai yang terjadi di kelas.
Hal tersebut dapat diketahui dengan menentukan gagasan utama tentang penggunaan teknologi pada teks, sebagai berikut:
Paragraf 3: Teachers can use digital portfolios that include photographs as well as audio and video recordings to archive a child’s accomplishment and developmental progression with families in face-to-face conferences, or through social media tools.
Paragraf 4: Modelling the effective use of technology and interactive media for parent communication and family engagement also creates opportunities to help parents themselves become better informed, …
The green movement is catching on in many pockets of the world. This is especially true in the construction industry. Today’s buzz words, which include global warming and zero emission, are causing everyday people to look for ways to reduce their carbon footprint. Purchasing environmentally-friendly property is a good investment for those who are concerned about their own health and the well-being of the earth. Based on this trend, entire districts, known as eco-communities. Its goal is to become the world’s first zero-emissions neighborhood.
Builders of Dockside Green have the environment in mind withevery choice they make. They ensure proper ventilation, and guarantee residents 100% fresh indoor air. Interior and exterior building materials, such as paints and wood, are natural and no-toxic. Eco-conscious builders use bamboo wherever possible because it is durable and does not require pesticides to grow.
Energy efficiency is one of the top priorities in eco-communities, such as Dockside Green. Not only do energy-efficient appliances and light fixtures reduce the environmental impact of heating and hot water, they also save residents and business owners money. Dockside Green claims that home owners will use 55% less energy than average residents in Canada. Though they are sharing space by investing in condo-style living, residents will have individual utility meters. Studies show that people use approximately 20% less energy when they are billed for exactly what they use. In addition, water is treated at Dockside Green and reused on site for flushing toilets.
Planners of eco-communities, such as Dockside Green must take the future into account. Dockside Green will reuse 90% of its construstion waste. They also plan to continue using local suppliers for all their transport and maintenance needs. This is a great way to reduce emissions. Dockside residents will be encourage to make use of a mini transit system and buy into the community’s care share program. Finally, plans are in the works for a high-tech heating system that will use renewable biomass instead of fossil fuels.
By saying today’s buzz words, which include global warming and zero/emissions, are causing everyday people to look for ways to reduce their carbon footprint. In line 2-3, the author implies that …
- Environmental issues have made people more cautious of their actions
- Global warming and zero emissions become everyone’s concern
- People have to take care of their greenhouses carefully
- Eco-friendly environmental programs should be strongly enforced
- All people around the world are aware of global warming
Pertanyaan di atas bertujuan mencari makna tersirat dari baris 2-3. “ Today’s buzz words, which include global warming and zero emission, are causing everyday people to look for ways to reduce their carbon footprint .”Lihat kata to look for ways menunjukkan bahwa isu yang diangkat pada teks di atas menjadi perhatian (concern) banyak orang. Maka makna tersirat yang sesuai adalah “Global warming and zero emissions become everyone’s concern.”
Which of the following best restates the sentence ‘ The green movement is catching on in many pocket of the world.’ In line 1?
- Many people consider it crucial to have eco-friendly environments.
- People who are aware of environmental issues love safe and healthy surroundings
- House designers should consider the importance of green materials
- Everyone should understand the effect of global warming and zero emissions well
- Environmentalists are concerned with the green environment
Maksud dari pertanyaan di atas adalah menyatakan kembali secara tepat kalimat ‘ The green movement is catching on in many pocket of the world.’ Jawaban yang paling tepat dari kelima pilihan jawaban adalah pilihan A. hal ini dapat kita lihat dari kata catching on memiliki makna serupa dengan consider it crucial dan kata many pocket of the world memiliki makna serupa dengan many people, bukan hanya dari kalangan environmentalists (pencinta lingkungan).
The false idea that the author may hold about Dockside Green is that …
- It provides all eco-friendly properties
- It is a good asset to buy a property in it
- It encourages all house to utilize efficient energy
- It reduce global warming and emissions
- It is where more natural livings can exist
Gagasan dari penulis pada teks di atas bisa saja menjadi false idea karena penulis terlalu sugestif dan tidak netral terhadap opini yang dikemukakan. Penulis menjabarkan bahwa berinvestasi di Dockside Green sangat berperan dalam menanggulangi global warming dan gerakan zero emission atau eco-friendly. Penulis mengesampingkan faktor lain seperti reboisasi dalam menanggulangi global warming and emissions.
The author organizes the ideas in the passage by …
- Describing a new housing trend and providing e detailed example
- Discussing an environmental issue and providing ways to solve the issue
- Identifying a community problem an discussing possible solutions to the problem
- Explaining an environmentally friendly initiative and discussing the impacts of the initiative
- Establishing a new community initiative that is eco-friendly and explaining the ideas behind the initiative
Ide-ide penulis pada teks di atas dituangkan dalam kerangka penulisan yaitu suatu rancangan yang mengandung garis besar isi teks yang tersusun secara sistematis dan terstruktur. Mengacu pada gagasan utama, penulis membuat kerangka berpikir sehingga terbentuk kalimat-kalimat yang membangun satu kesatuan informasi.
Builders of Dockside Green have the environment in mind with every choice they make. They ensure proper ventilation, and guarantee residents 100% fresh indoor air. Interior and exterior building materials, such as paints and wood, are natural and no-toxic. Eco-conscious builders use bamboo wherever possible because it is durable and does not require pesticides to grow.
Teks di atas menggambarkan tren perumahan baru secara terperinci.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/ or increased health problems. Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) when their BMI is between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2 , and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2 .
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breathing difficulties during sleep, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive dietary calories, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptability although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, mediations or psychiatric ilness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counter parts due to the energy required to maintain an icreased body mass.
The primary treatment for obesity is dieting and physical exercise. To supplement this, or in case of failure, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. In severe cases, surgery is performed or an intra-gastric balloon is placed toreduce stomach volume and/ or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.
Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adult and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world.
The author’s attitude regarding obesity in the passage is …
Penjabaran penulis pada teks di atas gagasannya dikemukakan secara objektif karena penulis tidak memasukkan opini menurut pendapatnya sendiri.
What topic does the paragraph following the passage above most likely discuss?
- How obese people are treated
- How obesity is perceived in general
- How obesity is succesfully reduce
- How people are made aware of obesity
- How the causes of obesity are minimized
Perhatikan paragraf ke empat “Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adult and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world.” Kata stigmatized and perceived menekankan bahwa teks tersebut akan membahas apa.
What is the best summary of the passage?
- Obesity that is the main preventable can cause various diseases. Dieting and physical exercise can prevent obesity.
- Obese people tend to have health problems. The problems are considered as the 21st century problems.
- Obesity leads to a shorter life because of the increased health problems. Therefore, people are advised to have a surgery.
- Obesity is widely considered as a symbol of wealth. Therefore, many people who are obese tend to be reluctant to do a diet.
- Obese people eat little but easily gain weight. To reduce their weight, they actually do a lot of physical exercise.
Kesimpulan adalah gabungan beberapa informasi yang mewakili keseluruhan informasi dalam teks. Maka kesimpulan yang dapat kita peroleh dari teks di atas adalah “ orang yang obesitas cenderung memiliki masalah kesehatan. Masalah tersebut dianggap sebagai masalah pada abad ke-21.”
It can be hypothesized from the passage that …
- The more varied food we eat, the more health risks we will suffer from
- The more energy we have, the more food we consume
- The wealthier we are, the more likely we will be obese
- The more diseases due to obesity we suffer from, the more treatments we need
- The less physical exercise we do, the more likely we will be obese
Maksud hipotesis pada teks di atas adalah informasi tentang hubungan antara obesitas, penyakit, dan cara menanggulanginya. Kata kuncinya adalah pada hubungan sebab akibat, yaitu semakin sedikit latihan fisik yang kita lakukan semakin besar kemungkinan kita akan mengalami kegemukan.